Human immunodeficiency virus type one (HIV-1) is the main causative agent of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) that has led to approximately 40 million deaths of infected people by the end of 2017. To date, despite the introduction of combination antiretroviral treatment (also referred as HAART, or highly active antiretroviral therapy) since 1996, HIV-1 pandemic continues to grow with 36.9 million people currently living with the virus. To win the war against HIV/AIDS, it is essential to understand the history of HIV/AIDS and the latest development in the area of virology and immunology.
A. BASICS OF HIV MEDICINE
Introduction Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states or events (including disease), and the application of this study to the control of diseases and other health problems. As regards HIV/AIDS, epidemiology performs a number of key public health functions, which include: describing its occurrence in populations, examining factors at individual/population […]
Introduction A diagnosis of HIV infection requires the practical application of tests differing in methodology as well as testing purpose. Generally, tests are done for three reasons: individual diagnosis, protection of blood or tissue product safety, and public health surveillance. According to the objective of testing, the most appropriate test is chosen based on convenience, […]
Introduction The AIDS epidemic has been with us for over three decades, during which the advancement in therapy has changed the course of the disease from an acute to a manageable chronic illness. This is witnessed in Hong Kong as much as it is in other developed countries. There is no cure for HIV yet. […]